C O N T E N T S
Kell Blood Group
The Kell blood group (also known as the Kell antigen system or Kell-Cellano system) is determined by a group of antigen?s on the human red blood cell surface. Kell antigens are targets for autoimmune or alloimmune diseases which destroy red blood cells. The Kell antigens are peptides found within the kell protein, a 93 kilodalton transmembrane zinc-dependent endopeptidase which is responsible for cleaving endothelin-3. (1) (2)
Longevity is defined as long life or the length of a person's life (life expectancy). Reflections on longevity have usually gone beyond acknowledging the basic shortness of human life and have included thinking about methods to extend life. Longevity has been a topic not only for the scientific community but also for writers of travel, science fiction and utopian novels. The longest human lifespan on record that has been authenticated is the 122 years 164 days of Jeanne Calment, though fiction, legend, and mythology have proposed or claimed vastly longer lifespans in the past or future and longevity myths frequently allege them to exist in the present.
Mitochrondrial DNA Haplogroups
In human genetics, Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. These haplogroups trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread across the globe.
William Clouser Boyd, American Serologist, Lectinologist, Immunochemist, Geneticist, Archeologist, Author and Educator. Born at Dearborn, Missouri. Educated at Harvard and Boston University. Professor of Immunochemistry, Boston University. Born 4 Mar 1903; died 19 Feb 1983.
Cystine is an organic compound described by the formula (SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H)2. This colourless amino acid melts at 247 -249 °C. It forms upon oxidation of a pair of cysteine molecules. It was discovered in 1810 by William Hyde Wollaston but was not recognized as a component of proteins until it was isolated from the horn of a cow in 1899.(3) Cystine is found in most proteins, and makes a significant contribution to the tertiary structure of most proteins. Cystine is partially responsible for the formation of a gluten matrix in bread, along with hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. The acid hydrolysis of two kilograms of human hair affords about 100 grams of cystine.(4)
Valine is one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids. Nutritionally, valine is also an essential amino acid. It is named after the plant valerian.
Aspartic acid (Asp), also known as aspartate, the name of its anion, is one of the 20 natural proteinogenic amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins.
Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. With its 4-aminobutyl side-chain, it is classified as a basic amino acid, along with arginine and histidine. It is an essential amino acid, and the human nutritional requirement is 1–1.5 g daily. A deficiency in lysine can result in a deficiency in niacin (which is a B Vitamin). This can cause the disease pellagra. Lysine can also be used as a nutritional supplement to help against herpes.
Cysteine metabolism is comprised of the biological pathways that consume or create cysteine?. The pathways of different amino acids and other metabolites interweave and overlap to creating complex systems.
Alanine (Ala) also 2-aminopropanoic acid is a non-essential α-amino acid. It exists as two distinct enantiomers - L-alanine and D-alanine. L-alanine is one of the 20 amino acids most widely used in protein synthesis, second to leucine, accounting for 7.8% of the primary structure in a sample of 1,150 proteins (5). D-alanine occurs in bacterial cell walls and in some peptide antibiotics.
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis)
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is a major part of the neuroendocrine system that controls reactions to stress and has important functions in regulating various body processes such as digestion, the immune system and energy usage. Species from humans to the most ancient organisms share components of the HPA axis. It is the mechanism for a set of interactions among glands, hormones and parts of the mid-brain that mediate a general adaptation syndrome.
Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring. It is isomeric with two other forms of diazine.
Uracil is a common naturally occurring pyrimidine(6). Uracil was originally discovered in 1900 and it was isolated by hydrolysis of yeast nuclein that was found in bovine thymus and spleen, herring sperm, and wheat germ(7). Uracil is a planar, unsaturated compound that has the ability to absorb light(8).
Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA? and RNA; the others being adenine?, cytosine?, thymine?, and uracil. With the formula C5H5N5O, guanine is a derivative of purine, consisting of a fused pyrimidine-imidazole ring system with conjugated double bonds. Being unsaturated, the bicyclic molecule is planar. The guanine nucleoside is called guanosine.
Neutral theory of molecular evolution
The neutral theory of molecular evolution (also, simply the neutral theory of evolution) is an influential theory that was introduced with provocative effect by [Motoo Kimura]? in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Although the theory was received by some as an argument against Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, Kimura and most evolutionary biologists today maintain that the two theories are compatible. The theory attributes a large role to genetic drift.
A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. In the most common nucleotides the base is a derivative of [Purine? purine] or pyrimidine, and the sugar is the pentose (five-carbon sugar) deoxyribose or ribose.
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven transmembrane receptors, heptahelical receptors, or 7TM receptors, are a protein family of transmembrane receptors that transduce an extracellular signal (ligand binding) into an intracellular signal (G protein activation). The GPCRs are the largest protein family known, members of which are involved in all types of stimulus-response pathways, from intercellular communication to physiological senses. The diversity of functions is matched by the wide range of ligands recognized by members of the family, from photons (rhodopsin, the archetypal GPCR) to small molecules (in the case of the histamine receptors) to proteins (for example, [Chemokines? chemokine receptors]). This pervasive involvement in normal biological processes has the consequence of involving GPCRs in many pathological conditions, which has led to GPCRs being the target of 40 to 50% of modern medicinal drugs.
In biochemistry, a ligand is an effector, a molecule that binds to a site on a macromolecule's surface by intermolecular forces, thereby changing the chemical conformation of the macromolecule. Once a molecule's conformation has changed, its ability to function in other chemical reactions is altered. This binding is usually a reversible reaction, i.e. it can be undone. Actual coordinate covalent bonds between a ligand and its target molecule are rare in biological systems. Ligands include substrates, inhibitors, activators, and neurotransmitters.
In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. Ligand-induced changes in the behavior of receptor proteins result in physiological changes that constitute the biological actions of the ligands.
In biology, signal transduction is any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another. Processes referred to as signal transduction often involve a sequence of biochemical reactions inside the cell, which are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers. Such processes take place in as little time as a millisecond or as long as a few seconds. Slower processes are rarely referred to as signal transduction.
Ubiquitin is a small regulatory protein that is ubiquitous in eukaryotes. Ubiquitination (or Ubiquitylation) refers to the Post-translational modification of a protein by the covalent attachment (via an isopeptide bond) of one or more ubiquitin monomers. Ubiquitin (originally, Ubiquitous Immunopoeitic Polypeptide) was first identified in 1975 as an 8.5 kDa protein of unknown function expressed universally in living cells. The basic functions of ubiquitin and the components of the ubiquitination pathway were elucidated in the early 1980s in groundbreaking work performed by Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose for which the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 2004.
Histone deacetylases (HDAC)
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) (EC number 3.5.1) are a class of enzymes that remove acetyl groups from an ε-N-acetyl lysine amino acid on a histone. Deacetylation restores a positive electric charge, which increases the histone's affinity for DNA. This generally down-regulates DNA transcription by blocking the access of transcription factors.
In molecular biology, two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds are called a base pair (often abbreviated bp). In DNA, adenine (A) forms a base pair with thymine (T), as does guanine (G) with cytosine (C). In RNA, thymine is replaced by uracil (U).
Copy number polymorphisms
Abbreviated CNP, Copy number polymorphisms are a normal variation in DNA due to variation in the number of copies of a sequence within the DNA. Large-scale copy number polymorphisms are common and widely distributed in the human genome.
RNA Interference (RNAi)
RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism in molecular biology where the presence of certain fragments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) interferes with the expression of a particular gene which shares a homologous sequence with the dsRNA. RNAi is distinct from other gene silencing phenomena in that silencing can spread from cell to cell and generate heritable phenotypes in first generation progeny when used in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Genetic polymorphisms in dietary xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes
From: Nowell S and Kadlubar F. 'Cancer and gene variants in enzymes metabolizing dietary xenobiotics'. In: Nutritional Genomics, Edited by Flohe and Joost, copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Five prime untranslated region (5' UTR)
In [Eukaryote? eukaryotic] genetics, the five prime untranslated region (5' UTR) is a particular section of messenger RNA (mRNA). It precedes the translation initiation site of the gene?, bounded on the 5' end by the start of transcription and on the 3' end by the start codon (see Figure 1 for a schematic view). In some viruses it may have additional role in enhancing the expression level or increasing the stability of RNA.
Open reading frame
An open reading frame or ORF is any sequence of DNA? or RNA that can be translated into a protein. In a gene?, ORFs are located between the start-code sequence (initiation codon) and the stop-code sequence (termination codon). ORFs are usually encountered when sifting through pieces of DNA while trying to locate a gene.
Haplogroup T (mtDNA)
Haplogroup T is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
The theory of recapitulation, also called the biogenetic law or ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, is a theory in biology which attempts to explain apparent similarities between humans and other animals. First espoused in 1866 by German zoologist Ernst Haeckel, a contemporary of Charles Darwin, the theory has been discredited in its absolute form, although recognized as being partly accurate. In biology, ontogeny is the embryonal development process of a certain species, and phylogeny a species' evolutionary history. Observers have noted various connections between phylogeny and ontogeny, explained them with evolutionary theory and taken them as supporting evidence for that theory.
A phosphodiesterase (PDE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonds. There are 11 families of PDEs, namely PDE1-PDE11.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a molecule that is important in many biological processes; it is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). cAMP is a second messenger, used for intracellular signal transduction, such as transferring the effects of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline, which cannot get through the cell membrane. Its main purpose is the activation of protein kinases; it is also used to regulate the passage of Ca2+ through ion channels.
Ploidy indicates the number of copies of the basic number of chromosomes. The number of basic sets of chromosomes in an organism is called the monoploid number (x). The ploidy of cells can vary within an organism. In humans, most cells are diploid (containing one set of chromosomes from each parent), though sex cells (sperm and oocytes) are haploid. In contrast, tetraploidy (four sets of chromosomes), a type of polyploidy, is not uncommon in healthy plant species.
A maternal effect, in genetics, is the phenomena where the genotype of a mother is expressed in the phenotype of its offspring, unaltered by paternal genetic influence. This is usually attributed to maternally produced molecules, such as mRNAs, that are deposited in the egg cell. Maternal effect genes often affect early developmental processes such as axis formation.
The ability of an organism with a given genotype? to change its phenotype in response to changes in the environment is called phenotypic plasticity. Such plasticity in some cases expresses as several highly morphologically distinct results; in other cases, a continuous norm of reaction describes the functional interrelationship of a range of environments to a range of phenotypes.
Rheology is the study of the deformation and flow of matter under the influence of an applied stress. The term was coined by Eugene Bingham, a professor at Lehigh University, in 1920, from a suggestion by a colleague, Markus Reiner. The term was inspired by Heraclitus's famous expression panta rei, "everything flows".
1. Lee S, Wu X, Reid M, Zelinski T, Redman C. Molecular basis of the Kell (K1) phenotype. Blood. 1995 Feb 15;85(4):912-6. PMID 7849312
2. Lee S, Lin M, Mele A, Cao Y, Farmar J, Russo D, Redman C. Proteolytic processing of big endothelin-3 by the kell blood group protein. Blood. 1999 Aug 15;94(4):1440-50. PMID 10438732
3. "cystine." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 27 July 2007 www.britannica.com/eb/article-9028437/cystine
4. Gortner, R. A.; W. F. Hoffman, W. F. “l-Cystine” Organic Syntheses, Collected Volume 1, p.194 (1941). http://www.orgsyn.org/orgsyn/pdfs/CV1P0194.pdf
5. Doolittle RF (1989). "Redundancies in protein sequences" in Prediction of Protein Structures and the Principles of Protein Conformation. (Fasman GD, ed.), pp 599-623, Plenum Press, New York.
6. Garrett, Reginald H.; Grisham, Charles M. Principles of Biochemistry with a Human Focus. United States: Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning, 1997.
7. Brown, D.J. Heterocyclic Compounds: Thy Pyrimidines. Vol 52. New York: Interscience, 1994.
8. Horton, Robert H.; et al.Principles of Biochemistry. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002.
COMPLETE BLOOD TYPE ENCYCLOPEDIA
The Complete Blood Type Encyclopedia is the essential desk reference for Dr. D'Adamo's work. This is the first book to draw on the thousands of medical studies proving the connection between blood type and disease.
Click to learn more
Click the Play button to hear to Dr. Peter J. D'Adamo discuss .
The statements made on our websites have not been evaluated by the FDA (U.S. Food & Drug Administration).
Our products and services are not intended to diagnose, cure or prevent any disease. If a condition persists, please contact your physician.
Copyright © 2015-2023, Hoop-A-Joop, LLC, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Log In