Maternal blood group in otitis media with effusion
Clin Otolaryngol 1994 Aug;19(4):327-331 Gannon MM, Jagger C, Haggard MP Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Leicester, UK.
- Risk factors for otitis media with effusion (OME) have proved difficult to apply in selecting persistent cases, or those otherwise requiring intervention. Explanations may include low predictive values of individual factors and the costs of data collection. In this study, profiles on 225 children from conception to age 7 years were compiled from medical and Health Authority records and structured interviews with parents. On the grounds that nearly all cases receiving medical intervention after waiting and onward referral are more than transitory (although many persistent cases will not receive such attention) this was taken as the dependent variable--a marker of persistence. Established risk factors and maternal blood group A were considered singly to predict intervention, then in combination using logistic regression. Maternal blood group A gave a relative risk (RR) for intervention of 2.82. The noted occurrence of an attack of acute otitis media (AOM) before the first birthday gave a RR of 6.13. When these two factors were used together, the RR climbed steeply to 26.77. These findings suggest that further research is justified into the nature of the influence of blood group A on OME, and the use of combinations of risk factors to give enhanced prediction.
Distribution of ABO blood groups in secretory otitis media and cholesteatoma.
Clin Otolaryngol 1983 Aug;8(4):263-265 Mortensen EH, Lildholdt T, Gammelgard NP, Christensen PH
- The ABO blood groups of 610 patients with documented secretory otitis media (SOM) and of 361 patients with cholesteatoma were compared with those of a control group. In cholesteatoma a normal distribution appeared while in SOM a preponderance of group A or shortage of group O was statistically significant and the incidence ratio was 1.49. In both disease entities a preponderance of males was found. The blood group abnormalities of SOM may indicate hereditary trends and they oppose the theories of SOM being the 'missing link' in the development of cholesteatoma.
Blood group phenotype determines lectin-mediated adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to human outer ear canal epithelium
Int J Med Microbiol Virol Parasitol Infect Dis 1995 Apr;282(3):287-295 Steuer MK, Beuth J, Hofstadter F, Probster L, Ko HL, Pulverer G, Strutz J Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Regensburg.
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequent bacterial pathogen causing acute diffuse otitis externa. In this investigation, human ABO blood group antigens were analysed on outer ear canal epithelial cells with standard routine histological procedures by monoclonal antibodies for the blood groups A and B, and with Ulex europaeus I lectin for the blood group O, respectively. In all cases (n = 20) the blood groups could be shown immunohistologically. P. aeruginosa-specific adhesion and inhibition assays were performed in the presence of N-acetylgalactosamine? (GalNAc), N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), D-mannose? and A-like substance. Amongst others, P. aeruginosa present adhesion molecules (lectins) with specificity for GalNAc. Thus, the correlation between blood group A phenotype and P. aeruginosa-induced acute diffuse otitis externa was investigated. Statistical evaluation proved a highly significant association. These data support the hypothesis that P. aeruginosa lectins with GalNAc specificity apparently adhere to GalNAc moieties, representing the terminal blood group A-determinant and further indicate that patients presenting with blood group A may have a genetic disposition for this form of otitis externa.
- D'Adamo, P. AANP Lectures, Boston MA 2000