The Teacher Epi-Genotype
Peter D'Adamo, ND
The GenoType Diet
Environmental factors can alter the way our genes are expressed, making even identical twins different. Epigenetics is the study of changes in genetic expression that are not linked to changes in the DNA sequences but related to the influence of the environment on the genes being expressed or not --basically, whether a gene is silenced or activated. In essence, certain genes carry a sign that says, 'ignore me' --these genes are silenced. Other genes carry a sign that says 'pay attention to me' --these genes are activated. What makes the whole shebang noteworthy is that the patterns of these signs, is just as inheritable as the very genes themselves. Because of this, epigenetics offers an unparalleled indirect effect on the treatment of illness.
The GenoType Diet is a further refinement of my work in personalized nutrition. It uses a variety of simple measurements, combined with blood type data, to classify individuals are one of six basic Epigenotypes: The Hunter, Gatherer, Teacher, Explorer, Warrior and Nomad types. This article describes the 'Explorer' epigenotype.
To Learn More about the GenoType Diet, read my book Change Your Genetic Destiny.
Introduction to the Teacher
Gathering up his wood shavings the Teacher walked over to the waste pile that archeologists call a midden and threw them on it. But something here looked very odd. The top of the pile was covered with tiny white and green sprouts, many still sporting the opened seed case on their newborn leaves. He knew that sometimes this happened on manure piles, but there were no animals kept in the longhouse. Then he remembered those bitter tasting vetch seeds he had tried to eat a few days ago...
Sometime around 12,000 years ago, communities began to develop in the Middle East that displayed new human technologies that marked yet another great leap forward in human consciousness. Eventually labeled as the Neolithic ("New Stone Age") era and most famous for the revolution in agricultural technology, in reality it was first and foremost a revolution in the human mindset, initiated by the rise of new beliefs, shared rituals and symbolisms.
Although most likely an Out of Africa adaptation, Teacher seems to have functioned optimally in a marshy or wetland environment, such as one would encounter in grassy wetlands in inland northern Asia or between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers of Mesopotamia, the Coastal salt marshes associated with the river estuaries of Europe and Africa. In any of these cases, fish, crustaceans and mollusks are traditionally widely available and easily procurable. By the late Mesolithic Period the Teacher worldview was most likely centered upon the scavenging for shoreline creatures and fishing. In this food-rich bioterrain exposure to pestilence would have been a constant fact of life. The exhaustion of these resources or a rising population would have placed severe stress on these societies.
By 8000-7000 BCE the Neolithic Revolution was widespread in Asia. Asian rice began to come under extensive cultivation in the Yangtze valley of China, having originated around the foothills of the Himalayas. The first agriculturalists were strictly subsistence. Food was grown for personal and family use with very little available for trade. Since these societies were shifting from a diet high in animal protein to one based more on plant protein, it seemed particularly counterintuitive when studies showed that the nutritional standards of Neolithic people were often inferior to that of hunter gatherers and their life expectancy was probably shorter. Many anthropologists think that the Biblical story of the expulsion from the Garden of Eden was actually a metaphor for the pain and suffering from societys conversion from hunter-gathering to the beginnings of food domestication.
If so, it made the Teacher a first-class adapter and one tough buzzard.
The quality of life of these early Neolithic peoples would have also taken a major turn for the better as what has since been termed the "Secondary Products Revolution" kicked in and animals began to be seen not just as a supply of meat, but also a source of wool, milk and traction energy to pull plows and carts. Widespread net and spear fishing would also soon reap major new rewards. The going would be tough, but Teacher was just tough enough to stick it out.
These psychic ties gradually led to the beginnings of social orders and hierarchies. There is evidence for the first time of a control of labor and conflicts characteristic of tribal groups, often headed by charismatic chieftains. The hunter-gatherer way of life was being replaced with the domestication of crops and animals, which enabled people to live more sedentary lives. A settled population permits year-round observation of the growing cycle, and hunter-gatherers are keen observers of the environmental conditions optimal for specific plant products. These would have been what archeologists call Neolithic Founder Crops—the first known domesticated plants in the world. These primary foodstuffs were flax, emmer and einkorn wheat, barley, lentils, peas, chick peas, bitter vetch and broad beans.
The Teacher carries an impressive wisdom of the body. Long ago, Teacher GenoTypes incorporated rich and abundant sources of protein in combination with rapid adoption of simple but effective agricultural technologies, and went on to develop a reasonably flexible worldview.
Teacher GenoTypes are very, very tough, sinewy folks. Although not often tall or excessively muscular, they can often do the work of two or three people, since they have a marvelous synchronicity between their kinetic, chemical energy and their electric, nervous energy.
Generally they are ectomorphs or meso-ectomorphs, possessing a low body fat percentage, small bone size, a high metabolism, and a wiry physique. A characteristic of the Teacher is clearly discernable tendons and ligaments underneath the skin, a sign of flexibility and strength. Teachers tend to be smaller to average height, with torsos and legs of about equal length
Straight hair is another typical attribute of Teacher, and may represent very early adaptations to the cooling of the climate that occurred at about the same time as the disappearance of Neanderthal.
Lower leg length and upper leg length tend to be relatively balanced in the Teacher GenoType, but the trunk is usually longer than the total leg length. Teacher tends to be small boned, with a smaller frame size, although this may not be true of Africans and Northern Europeans. Teacher somatotypes are typically balanced, with few extreme versions of any somatotype, more typically Teacher is an equal mix of endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic types.
A characteristic of Teacher is the ability to clearly discern tendons and ligaments underneath the skin, which is almost never seen with Gatherer GenoType. This seems to result in Teacher having a tremendous amount of lever-like strength which gives these people such a physical capacity for hard work. Abraham Lincoln, a clear sign that Teacher is not a short GenoType (he had a glandular problem called acromegaly), could extend a full-sized wood axe by the end of its handle parallel to the ground for any length of time, to the constant amazement of his friends, who made him demonstrate this feat again and again.
The Teacher jaw structure is usually not round, meaning that the gonial angle can range from squarish to a more balanced shape. Teacher is relatively well balanced when it comes to androgens and estrogens and their lower leg extremity space is usually what would be expected for the gender of the subject.
Teacher is relatively well balanced when it comes to androgens and estrogens, but asymmetrical with regards to left and right medial planes: Their index and ring finger ratios (D2:D4 ratio) are usually asymmetrical as per left and right sides. Excessively longer ring fingers on both hands in men or index fingers in women indicate that an increased tendency towards developing cancers of the reproductive systems (prostate, ovary, breast, etc.) should be considered.
In Teacher, the relative size of protruding body parts increases with temperature. This translates into what anthropologists call Allens Rule: people and animals in hot climates tend to have longer limbs than those in cold climates. For example, the people of East Africa are tall, slender, with long arms and legs, while the Inuit or Eskimos of Alaska, Canada, and Siberia have short, stocky bodies with short arms and legs. Asian Teachers can be surprisingly long-legged, especially with optimum pre and post-natal nutrition.
Bergmans Rule dovetails into this: A smaller body has more surface area per body weight, so it sheds heat more efficiently by sweat. Average body size increases in cold climates, decreases in hot climates; big bodies hold heat better than small ones. This is also quite true of Teacher.
Most Teachers are PROP tasters or super tasters and usually have an A antigen blood type (blood types A1, A2, A1b, A2B).
Although encountered almost everywhere (with the noticeable exception of Central and South America) the A gene is a European, and to a certain extent Central Asian gene. Within the confines of Europe, in combination with the gene for blood type B, it splits the continent into a Western aspect (high frequency of A, low frequency of B) and Eastern aspect (high frequency of B, low frequency of A). The people in the "High A Zone" speak Indo-European languages other than Slavonic.
High concentrations of A are found in the Anatolian highlands of Turkey, and to a slightly lesser degree, the surrounding Fertile Crescent area of the Middle East. These areas are consider by some to be the birthplace of what would become the Neolithic, or agriculture; and though it would be extreme to link a single gene with the enormous effects on the human race that have resulted from the domestication of plants and animals, the physiological effects on the digestive tract that are linked to blood type A indicate that is was most certainly linked with the a series of multi-gene adaptations to grasses and grains.
These areas were hotbeds of early agricultural development, developing strains of cereals and other grasses such as emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, barley; pulses such as peas, lentils and chickpeas and fibers such as flax. Looking at many of the physiological characteristics of the digestive tract known to associate with type A, it appears that many of the immunological necessities involved in being able to digest and metabolize these early grains (in reality cultivated grasses) were impressed upon the A phenotype, since this the digestive tract this blood group tends to temper the antigenicity of many grains. This has the effect of producing a form of Genetic Drift: Their greater tolerance of often highly antigenic grains would have produced an "immune sparing" effect in blood type A Teacher, with the dividend being invested in more efficient controls of inflammation and better barrier defenses.
There is a very high incidence of AB blood in sub-continental Indian Teachers, again probably the result of the genetic intermingling of steppe-dwelling Nomad horsemen with the more agrarian, settled local stock.
Teachers often have a significant number of whorl type fingerprints, a useful indicator of future cancer risks, especially for women. Research has shown that the presence of six or more whorl fingerprint patterns is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, with a statistical significant no different from having a positive mammogram. Thats pretty dramatic! In type A Teachers, a whorl count greater than 6 should be considered a wake-up call for a pro-active cancer prevention program.
Their Rhesus (Rh) blood group is interesting. They are almost always Rh-positive, and a little further detective work shows that they almost always have the ancient form of the Rh positive blood group (CDE).
Common wisdom would seem to imply that men wander around much more than women, exploring, burning and pillaging and whatnot; but the genetic reality seems to be quite the opposite. Matter of fact when geneticists compared the mitochondrial data with the Y-chromosome data it seems that women have migrated from one continent to another about eight times more frequently than men. This may be the result of women leaving their own families and joining their husbands, or by polygyny, men fathering children by multiple female partners.
Geneticists typically cant do very much with single mutations, and lucky for them they dont often have to since nature often works in bigger chunks of markers called haplotypes. The word haplotype is a combination of the phrase haploid genotype, which in laymans terms means "double genetic stuff". Its double because, remember, you have two complete sets of genes; one from mom and the other from dad. When they did their little disco dance at the moment of your creation, the parts fused together, deciding then and there which of the rivals for your attention (alleles) would go on to be top dog.
Haplotypes are simply a chunk of alleles at different places along the same chromosome that are inherited as a unit, sort of like if you went to a clothing store, bought a blue sweater, and wound up being convinced by a very good salesperson that the sweater would look great with this pair of plaid pants.
The Rh blood type system was complex. Now I will explain why. We all inherit a set of three Rhesus (Rh) genes from each parent as part of a haplotype. You may have heard of them or even had them told to you when you got blood typed at a donation center: Theyre called the c, d, e, C, D and E genes and when the smoke clears after conception, theyre a haplotype.
As with all genetic-speak, upper case means a dominant gene and lower case means a recessive one, but here is where it gets interesting. Unlike eye color, where we could conceive of a single allele bossing the other around, like Ali versus Frazier in the "Thrilla in Manila", with Rh blood groups its the relationship of two gene chunks, each of three alleles; more like the Jets versus the Sharks in West Side Story. You get a chunk of three alleles from mom and they rumble with the three Rh alleles from dad, however instead of calling them a gang, or 'youth group we call them haplotypes.
To finish the story of the Rh groups, if moms gave you the Rh haplotype cDe and dad gave you the cde haplotype, youd be Rh positive. Actually any capital letter will make you positive, but a capital D will make you especially positive. Which is why some folks describe Rh earlier as big D and little D. Those GenoType Explorer Basques? Why, 50% of them got nothing but lower case letters (cde/cde).
A common problem for male African Teachers is favism (a type of anemia) though it is of the less severe form that seen with Mediterranean folks. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme found on red blood cells that is critical to maintaining proper levels of the anti-oxidant glutathione in its bioactive reduced form. Reduced glutathione acts as a scavenger for dangerous oxidative metabolites in the cell. Many drugs and a few foods can induce this damage to the red blood cells, which often is severe enough to cause anemia. Components in fava beans (vicine and convicine) which can induce severe hemolytic (destructive) anemia in people with the G6PD deficiency. Deficiency of G6PD is one of the most common enzyme defects in humans, affecting at least 300 million people worldwide.
Teachers often have polymorphisms of the cytochrome p450 detoxification system. The first thing you need to know is that the name cytochrome P450 has no relevancy whatsoever. It was coined in the early 1960s to describe an unknown pigment in cells which when bound with carbon monoxide, absorbed light at the 450nm wavelength and the name has stuck ever since. The P450 system is a giant superfamily of enzymes that now number well over 400 genes, with 60 in us humans alone. With all those genes, there needed to be some sort of order developed, so in 1987 a system was developed whereby the symbol CYP followed by numbers and letters detailing the gene and its individual qualities.
In general the Teacher worldview is an effective and accurate predictive response to most aspects of the modern environment. However, many of the more nefarious aspects of modern life, in particular the use of drugs such as nicotine, caffeine and recreational pharmaceuticals will pose an even more significant threat to Teacher than perhaps might otherwise be appreciated. Teachers tend to have rather low levels of enzymes coded by the CYP2E1 gene which metabolize many chemicals, including drugs and many low-molecular-weight carcinogens. This enzyme is also of interest because it is stimulated by alcohol and may play a role in liver injury induced by chemicals such as chloroform, vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride.
The enzyme is primarily found in the liver, and the level of enzyme varies markedly between individuals. Teachers may well be drawn to alcoholic beverages as a way of increasing this enzyme, as alcoholics have twice as much CYP2E1 activity as compared to nonalcoholics. This may be especially true of Teachers who are also non-secretors.
Ancestry and Variation
A fairly ubiquitous GenoType, the Teacher is found in just about every racial
and ethnic group, although it is especially common in East and South Asians and
Western Europeans, which implies that it is probably not much of a marker for
the modern day racial and ethnic categories. Teacher is also found equally in
both men and women. The ancestral DNA haplogroups for Teacher in general are
those types that are descended from macrohaplogroups associated with the Out
of Africa spread of Neolithic technologies.
Y-Chromosome DNA Analysis
Although not a predominantly African GenoType, some aspects of Teacher genodynamics may be seen in some of the Bantu descendants who carry the marker for Haplogroup E3a. Many Teacher genotypes are descended from the macrohaplogroup F, although most no longer carry F, but rather one of its myriad descendants, especially the M9 mutation which marks Haplogroup K and its descendants, many of which form the mass of Teacher GenoType: haplogroup O in East Asians and R1b in West Europeans. Haplogroup O and its variants (O1, O2, O3) appear to be adaptations to rice farming, whereas R1b is considered a marker of Cro-Magnon migration into Europe in the time before the last glacier.
Haplogroup O3 is a subset of haplogroup O arising about 10,000 years ago from an ancestral male who lived in China. This haplogroup appears in over 50% of all modern Chinese men, and is not found outside East Asia. The widespread success of haplogroup O3 is conjectured to be closely associated with the sudden agricultural boom associated with rice farming. Individuals who are haplogroup O3 are descended from Chinas first rice farmers.
DNA Mitochondrial Chromosome Analysis
Many non-European Teachers are descended from the rather rare R haplogroup R, Haplogroup R is a direct ancestor to the very large B haplogroup, arising in Asia some 50,000 years before present and is found throughout modern Asia and the New World.
Haplogroup R is believed to have occurred somewhere in North West Asia between 30,000 and 35,000 years ago. The most important subgroup of haplogroup R is R1, which is is very common throughout Europe and western Eurasia. Its distribution is believed to be associated with the re-settlement of Eurasia following the last glacial maximum. The main subgroups of R1 are R1a and R1b, which pretty much break down into an East and West description of things.
The other lineage traceable to R, and hence back to N, is Haplogroup JT and its descendant T. Although apparently originating in Eastern Europe via the Middle East, haplogroup T has migrated westward, to the point that it is now found in about 10% of all Western Europeans. Like YDNA haplogroup O, T is a Neolithic, agriculturalist marker shared by many Warrior GenoTypes as well.
SNPS that may be of special interest to Mu include the genes that regulate homocysteine metabolism and the production of methionine. These include:
Teacher GenoTypes are very, very tough, sinewy folks. Although not often tall
or excessively muscular, they can often do the work of two or three people, since
they have a marvelous synchronicity between their kinetic, chemical energy and
their electric, nervous energy. Usually when one fatigues, the other takes over,
and indeed a useful way for Teacher to relax is to simply alternate between these
Their tolerance of the physical world, and also to life in general, gives Teachers great insight into the nature of existence—which to them is simply the sum total of all matter in motion—and provides the Teacher GenoType an insightful, supernatural bent. However the Teacher is not antiscientific; rather, that it identified and aligned with natural processes and cosmology long before there was a science and probably will continue to do so long after it as well.
Because it is such a tolerant GenoType Teachers are not all that inflammatory-prone and in general seem to be less allergic. Teachers tend to age well, and often reach significantly advanced years. But this doesnt happen automatically. The key for Teachers is to seek balance in everything—whether it be diet, work schedules, sleep-wake cycles, or methods of exercise. Despite often reaching advanced age, a significant number of Teachers can experience major health problems in early middle age, such as cancers and circulatory problems.
The thymus and bone marrow loom large in the proper balance of the Teacher GenoType. Once dismissed as non-essential organ, it is now known to play a important role in the early development of the immune system, being the primary site of T cell maturation. By puberty, our thymus atrophies, gradually shrinking in size and function. For Teacher, hydrotherapy, particularly the bathing in cold spring water, has a provocative effect upon the thymus and immune system, probably due to receptors in the skin which are activated by sudden changes in temperature. Dry brushing and lymph drainage are all useful in stimulating the thymus and bone marrow through the skin. By increasing circulation in the body, hydrotherapy increases circulation of white blood cells, which stimulates the immune system.
As it says in the Bible, The sins of the father will be visited on the sons.
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